Q:How can Gratiana boliviana be integrated in managing TSA?

A: Gratiana boliviana provides an environmentally friendly approach to TSA management. However, the beetle is not the only tool available. Registered herbicides and mowing are effective in reducing large infestations. Mowing reduces the biomass of TSA, and is especially effective if done before the plants begin to produce fruit.  Some beetles will survive mowing and continue to feed on the lower parts of the plants which remain.  These beetles will slow the recovery of TSA plants. Additionally, many ranches are a mosaic of open pastures and more closed hammock areas.  TSA in hammock areas, which are difficult to access with equipment, can be reduced by beetles, while TSA in open pastures can be managed by mowing and herbicides.  Over time, the need to control TSA in open areas will decrease as the beetles spread from hammocks.